Babylon Nights Tidbit #8 ~ LA Tour

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Babylon Nights Tidbit #8 ~ LA Tour

Unread postby Liz » Wed Dec 08, 2010 1:56 pm

This is the last leg of our tour in California. Here’s the map again, for your reference:



Pg. 83:
THE HAPPY HAIR BEAUTY BOUTIQUE WAS ON WESTERN Avenue at the southern edge of Koreatown. It was a sunny day and the street outside was busy, a bright and continuous parade of ethnic mixes—black, white, Latino, Asian—but Perec never once looked at them.

Koreatown is a neighborhood in the Mid-Wilshire district of the city of Los Angeles known for its concentration of Korean American‎ people and institutions. Home to a population of over 120,000 and covering just under 3-square-mile (7.8 km2), it has one of the highest population densities of all neighborhoods in Los Angeles.

The neighborhood is in the midst of a construction boom that has helped fuel an influx of new residents priced out from nearby Los Feliz and West Hollywood. The neighborhood is known for its many commercial and residential mid and high rise towers, its rich collection of pre-1940 brick colonial revival buildings, Asian high fashion boutiques, and holding the largest concentration of nightclubs and 24-hour businesses and restaurants in Southern California. It is also the location of the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.

The city of Los Angeles has never set an official boundary for Koreatown and does not recognize any borders claimed by other agencies or offices. The Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles Unified School District, Wilshire Center-Koreatown Neighborhood Council (WCKNC), Los Angeles County, US Census Bureau and the Koreatown Cultural Center all maintain their own set of boundaries, none of them in agreement.

Recorded settlement of the neighborhood first began in the 1870s. In 1888, the Los Angeles area suffered a real estate land bust and forcing the sale of lots to be sold at $2.50. Henry Gaylord Wilshire had arrived with his family in Los Angeles four years prior and began purchasing lots in the neighborhoods of Hancock Park, Westlake Park and Lafayette Park, including a 35-acre (140,000 m2) tract on the edge of Hancock Park and the north western section of what would later become Koreatown.

In 1887, private funds had been donated to Los Angeles to convert the city dump into Westlake Park, now MacArthur Park. Because Wilshire's property surrounded the future park site, the city negotiated with Wilshire to build a street, bisecting his property in exchange for the street to meet the 120-foot (37 m) width sought by Wilshire and the street bearing his name.

In 1900, Germain Pellisser paid $25 per acre to the Southern Pacific Transportation Company for 160 acres (0.65 km2) between what is now Normandie and Western Avenues to raise sheep and barley. Also settling in the area was Reuben Schmidt, who purchased several acres of land east of Normandie for a dairy farm.

A 1911 donation to a local church by the Chapman Brothers lead to the construction of the Wilshire Christian Church, the first church on Wilshire Boulevard. In 1913, Wilshire Boulevard received its first high-rise building with the construction of the 10-story Bryson Hotel and owned by film actor Fred MacMurray. With Hollywood officially becoming part of the city of Los Angeles, many of its luminaries, including Mary Pickford and Harold Lloyd built homes in the area as did Los Angeles Times founder General Harrison Gray Otis. Other notable residents, in Los Angeles history, to move into the area were Isaac Van Nuys and G. Alien Hancock.

In 1920, the Western Avenue Businessmen's Association was formed. The association later became the Wilshire Chamber of Commerce. The following year saw the opening of the Ambassador Hotel on the former site of the Reuben Schmidt dairy farm. Also that year was the construction of the 14-story Gaylord Hotel, the tallest building in Los Angeles at the time and built by Wilshire. The following two years also saw the construction the Asbury, the Langham, the Fox Normandie, the Piccadilly and the Windsor high-rise apartment buildings. Many of Hollywood's elite live in these elegant New York-style apartment buildings.

Joseph Schenck, president of United Artists, purchased a newly constructed high-rise apartment for his actress wife Norma Talmadgein 1922, which was renamed the Talmadge. The couple lived on the 10th floor. The Doheny family opened the Town House on Wilshire and Commonwealth as an apartment hotel in 1924, later selling the building to Conrad Hilton. The same year saw the installation of the first neon sign in the country at a Packard car dealership on Wilshire Blvd.

Only one year later, Wilshire Boulevard became a tourists attraction for Southern California residents because of the large number of roof-top neon signs. With Westlake Park lake the backdrop for many of his movies, Charlie Chaplin moved to an apartment building he purchased near the Ambassador Hotel. Also taking cue from the move was Gloria Swanson, who moved into an apartment building she purchased across the street from the Ambassador. Swanson and her husband, Herbert Somborn, opened the iconic Hollywood hangout, the Brown Derby, on Wilshire and Alexandria in 1926.

The world's first drive through opened in 1929 at the Chapman Market building located on 6th and Alexandria. That same year, department store Bullock's opened its first "suburban" department store on Wilshire and Westmoreland. The 12-story building was modeled after the Paris Exposition des Arts Decoratifs et Moderne. Also that year, the Academy Awards ceremony moved from the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel to the Ambassador Hotel and a section of the Germain Pellessier sheep farm on the corner of Wilshire and Western became the construction site of what would be the crown jewel of the Warner Brothers theater chain. The theater, and adjoining 12-story Pellessier building, opened in 1931 and the following year renamed the Wiltern Theater.

The Hollywood Golden Age

The 1930s saw the height of the area's association with Hollywood. The Ambassador Hotel hosted the Academy Awards ceremony in 1930, 1931, 1932, and 1934. The now Koreatown area began to be referred to as the Upper Eastside of the West Coast. Hollywood's elite continued to settle in the neighborhood as did the city's leading families such as the Jansses, Banning, Rowan, Mulholland, Hilton, Sepulveda and Windsor. In 1939, I. Magnin opened the first store in the country to be entirely operated by electricity and the first air-conditioned building on Wilshire and New Hampshire.

The Great Depression only slightly affected the development of the neighborhood and before the end of the decade, the neighborhood would rival Beverly Hills and Pasadena in wealth and prestige. Wilshire Boulevard gained international notoriety during this period and was more known than Hollywood Boulevard. Wilshire, between Vermont and Western Avenues was the place to see and be seen and the place to see movie stars strolling the streets during Hollywood's golden era.

With the Ambassador Hotel as anchor, the Brown Derby, Cocoanut Grove club, and Wiltern Theater frequently saw the likes of Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Judy Garland, Gene Kelly, Louis Armstrong, Howard Hughes and Julie Andrews, who all resided in the neighborhood at some point.

In 1943, the Ambassador Hotel hosted its 6th and final Academy Awards ceremony. The hotel continued to draw well-known and powerful people of the day including Presidents Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy,Lyndon B. Johnson, Ronald Reagan and an endless list of dignitaries from Queen Elizabeth II to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.

In 1951, the Wilshire Center country club and golf range on Wilshire between Mariposa and Normandie was sold to developers following the lifting of the city 13-story height limit. The site became the triple 12-story Tishman Plaza (now the Central Plaza), US Borax building, CNA building (now the Superior Court building) and the Wilshire Plaza.

Decentralization of LA

Towards the end of the 1950s, the trend to move westward and into the suburbs swept downtown's financial and commercial businesses, many relocating to the neighborhood's business district along Wilshire Boulevard between Vermont and Western Avenues. A number of 20 and 30-story office high-rise buildings were erected during the period in the area including the headquarters of Getty Oil, H.F. Ahmanson & Co., Equitable Life Insurance, Beneficial Financial Group, and Wausau Financial.

As Los Angeles rapidly decentralized along newly constructed freeway corridors, Wilshire Boulevard and the areas surrounding fell into a steep and lengthy decline. Many of the commercial and financial businesses that relocated to the area during the 1950s left the area and moved further west. With property values drastically diminished, the area saw a heavy influx of Koreans during the 1960s, after restrictions on immigration to the United States from East Asia were lifted in 1965.

In 1968, after winning the California primary and Democratic nomination for President, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, brother to former US President John F. Kennedy, was assassinated in the kitchen of the Ambassador Hotel. His body was rushed to nearby Good Samaritan Hospital where he was declared dead.

Korean reinvention

In an effort to reverse the area's decline, a seven-year study by a community advisory group and the City Planning Department was conducted and the Wilshire Plan was submitted to the Planning Committee of the City Council resulting in the area and its surrounding neighborhoods being declared the Wilshire Center District.

In the 1970s, the Heavy-Chemical Industry Drive initiated by South Korean president Park Chung Hee, which displaced much of Korea's petit bourgeoisie, resulted in even more Koreans settling in Wilshire Center, part of which was soon rechristened "Koreatown." Korean immigrants established a permanent foothold of the area with the opening of the Korean Youth and Community Center in 1974. The neighborhood, at the time, had an estimated 70,000 Korean immigrants.

Riots of 1992

On the afternoon of April 29, 1992, a Los Angeles area jury acquitted four white LAPD officers in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King. What ensued after is known as the 1992 Los Angeles Riots, the Uprising or Rodney King Riots. During the following six days, the city of Los Angeles and neighboring communities experienced the largest civil unrest in Los Angeles since the 1965 Watts Riots. Los Angeles experienced massive looting, murders, fires, property damage, racial brawls along major intersections, power outages, loss of phone services, cancellation of all entertainment and sports events, and altered flight schedules due to gunfire at Los Angeles International Airport.

Koreatown experienced the hardest crime and destruction of the ordeal. Hundreds of Korean owned businesses were looted, damaged or burnt down and an unknown number of Koreans physically attacked. By the second day of rioting, the LAPD and County Sheriff had been overpowered by the number of rioters forcing the departments to pull all units from patrol. As violent rioters next turned its attention to firefighters, the LAFD also recalled their teams. This left unchecked crime and fires which quickly expanded. The Korean American community, seeing the police force's abandonment of Koreatown, organized gun-wielding groups to protect businesses and area residents. Open gun battles were televised live as shopkeepers defended their business from the crowds of violent looters.

Order was restored on the sixth day of rioting after a mandatory curfew, lock down, and state of emergency had been declared. At its peak, the deployment of the National Guard, US Coast Guard, FBI, Federal Protective Service, Immigration & Customs Enforcement and Justice Department assisted the LAPD, Los Angeles County Sheriff, California Highway Patrol, Los Angeles Fire Department, and the police departments of Bell, Bell Gardens, Huntington Park, Inglewood, Long Beach, Maywood, Vernon, Torrance, Culver City, Gardena and Hawthorne.

By the time the riots ended, 54 lives were lost, 2,383 people injured (228 critical), 12,111 arrested, 7,001 fires set, 1,400 structures destroyed, 3,100 businesses looted, with an estimated material damage of $1 billion.

In the aftermath of the riots a large percentage of Korean residents moved to Orange County and the San Fernando Valley. Many business owners did not reopen or repair their businesses, leaving the area with block after block of burnt down or abandoned buildings. Property values dipped below the notoriously poor areas of East Los Angeles and South Central.

According to Edward Park, the 1992 violence stimulated a new wave of political activism among Korean Americans, but it also split them into two main camps. The liberals sought to unite with other minorities in Los Angeles to fight against racial oppression and scapegoating. The conservatives emphasized law and order and generally favored the economic and social policies of the Republican Party.


In 2000, the city of Los Angeles began to promote smart-growth and removed many of the parking, low-housing, bed, pollution, tourist and new construction taxes that placed restrictions on any development and growth. With very little open land left in the city, the city eyed pre-1980's Koreatown as the ideal and model for the future of L.A. Most importantly however, Koreatown is in the center of the city of Los Angeles.

With the collapse of the Japanese economy and stagnant Korean economy, many in those countries eyed Los Angeles as a bargain, with a pre-fab Koreatown particularly for being the nearest to a densely populated and skyscraper friendly Tokyo and Seoul. As Korean and Japanese investment began to mount, so did construction in the area. As former Koreatown business owners and residents took notice in new Asian development, many began to use the new interest of Koreatown as a catalyst to return.

During the same time period, Los Angeles completed the purple leg of its new subway system with three stops in Koreatown along skyscraper laden Wilshire Boulevard. This inspired even more interest back in the community with increased construction and population growth. With signs of revitalization seen in other parts of the city, notably Hollywood and downtown, Los Angeles and the area's transportation agency MTA broke down the barriers and walls to introduce the city to gentrification. And it did so by removing all restriction above the MTA Metro subway system and encouraged developers to build high. As the end point for the Purple Line and its three stations, Koreatown has greatly benefited from the line and the city's smart-growth promotion.

Since the smart-growth adoption of the city council, Koreatown has bloomed with new construction permits, adaptive re-use requests, and will serve as the terminus to Beverly Hills, West Hollywood, West LA and Santa Monica along the extension of the subway system.

Furthering its gentrification roll-out, in late 2008 the city of Los Angeles designated Koreatown a special graphics district (along with Hollywood and the downtown neighborhood of South Park/LA Live). The designation allows for digital signage and electronic billboards, currently not permitted by city code, to be installed on building facades allowing for Times Square and Shibuya District inspired buildings lined with LCD jumbotrons. The 300 square block graphics district is bordered by 6th Street and Olympic Blvd. from the north and south, and St. Andrews Place and Shatto from the west to east.

Koreatown now brims with vibrant nightlife and commerce, and the construction of mid-high end residential buildings, including numerous apartments and condominiums, and continues to attract new residents. Recently, Koreatown has been infused with college students due to inexpensive housing, public transit to UCLA and USC, and a vibrant nightlife.

Neighborhood culture

With its rich diversity, an emergence of a new multiculturalism between the Korean and Latino populations in Koreatown has begun to foreshadow an unprecedented change for American history. Most Korean businesses draw their employees, and in many cases customers, from the surrounding area's large Latino population. The relationship is such that Korean business owners are learning Spanish in increasing rates and Latinos are learning Korean. Several Korean churches and community centers in Koreatown offer free Spanish and Korean to local residents. It is not unusual to find Latino employees in restaurants and grocery stores speaking Korean with customers or Korean store owners engaging Latino customers in Spanish.[13] Moreover, it is common to see Korean American customers eating in Latino restaurants and Latin American customers eating in Korean restaurants. A visual example of this rich and unique cultural exchange between Koreans and Latinos in Koreatown is the recent popularity of Korean inspired taco trucks in LA that feature classic Mexican food items infused with Korean ingredients.


Cultural experience can be immediately felt just by stepping into one of Koreatown’s shopping centers. A variety of fashion, jewelry, electronics, cosmetics, gifts and other goods will be found— many of them imported directly from Korea.


The local scene in Koreatown is unlike any other seen in Los Angeles, having the feel of a mini-Seoul. It is dotted with Korean language signs, often with no translation. Its nightlife atmosphere often gives the impression that in Koreatown after dark, different rules apply.

The neighborhood has over 1,100 night-time establishments which includes numerous bars, clubs, restaurants, spas, noraebangs (karaoke studios), dancehalls, theaters, poolhalls, coffeehouses, Hookah Lounges and internet parlors.

Though not well known to non-residents and understandably skipped by tourists in search ofHollywood, Koreatown is the nearest to a 24-hour district in Los Angeles, and has the highest concentration of nightclubs and restaurants in Southern California.

Though it is against California state law, smoking is tolerated everywhere—outdoors, indoors, sometimes right under the No Smoking sign. It's also a non-secret that a sizable number of businesses serve liquor after 2 a.m. LAPD cites alcohol violations in the form of after hours sales and sales to minors as a "big problem."

A smorgasbord of restaurants can be found in Koreatown from every food category and culture. From tofu houses, Korean BBQ, Mexican taco stands, bakeries, Greek gyros, pizza, Vietnamese Pho noodle houses, Thai, Salvadoran pupuserías, boba parlors, Chinese food to American hamburger joints, coffee houses and steakhouses, it is common to find all of these types of restaurants under the same roof in a single Koreatown shopping plaza.


Koreatown holds several annual festivals. The Korean Festival & Parade is held along Olympic Blvd. and marches to the Seoul Peace Park. The Wilshire Center Business Improvement District (WCBID) holds the annual Earth Day / Car Free Day Festival every April 22 on Wilshire Blvd. The City of Los Angeles holds the Earth Day Expo along Wilshire Blvd every June. The Thai consulate holds the Indonesian festival every August at Mariposa Ave and Wilshire Blvd. The Greek Festival is held every September along Normandie and the St. Sophia Cathedral. The Festival Navideño de la Calle 8 is the largest toy drive festival in the United States, where it encompasses several blocks around 8th St. and Normandie Ave. during early December every year.

Crime and safety

Recent media coverage of Koreatown has led to the misconception of high-crime activity within the neighborhood. Adding to the belief is the memory of the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. Though individual numbers for the various classified crimes rank mid to high among the city's districts,[citation needed] when resident population and the area's density is used to determine rates, Koreatown is not a high-crime rate area.


South Korean investment has been a large contributor to the neighborhood economy since the 1960s. Since the early 2000s, that investment has increased greatly, ballooning to an estimated $1 billion in new construction investment.

Since the adoption by the Los Angeles City Council of smart growth and the subsequent removal of zoning laws and tax fees, Japanese investment has notably increased as well as interest from the UAE firm Dubai Holding.

Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery

Pg. 88:


Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery is one the earliest burial grounds in the city of Los Angeles, California and also the final resting place of a wide variety of interesting personalities. Among its interred are early pioneers, businessmen, and politicians of the city; as well as such Hollywood personalities as Dracula director, Tod Browning, and acclaimed actress, Hattie McDaniel. Also among the dead are the famous magician, Harry Kellar, as well as the perpetrators and victims of notorious crimes. It has also made appearances in both movies and television, including Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994) and the popular television show Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery is located at 1831 West Washington Boulevard in the historic West Adams District a short distance southwest of Downtown LA. It was founded as Rosedale Cemetery in 1884, when Los Angeles was a small city of around 28,285 people, on 65 acres (260,000 m2) of land running from Washington to Venice Boulevard (then 16th Street) between Normandie Avenue and Walton and Catalina Streets, and often used by California politicians, notably former Mayors of the City of Los Angeles.

It was the home to the first crematory west of the Rockies, which also reportedly had the distinction of being the second in the United States. The first cremation took place in 1887. Angelus-Rosedale's historic crematory should not be confused with the Chapel of the Pines Crematory, which adjoins the property. That facility was constructed in 1903 and is unrelated.

Rosedale Cemetery also has the distinction of being the first cemetery in Los Angeles to open its grounds to all races and creeds, reportedly dropping their racial barriers in 1952 (see Hattie McDaniel below). It also is fairly unique in that it features a variety of standing tombstones, tombs, and personal mausoleums in comparison with other cemeteries in the city that tend to favor flat headstones. Interspersed among the graves, the cemetery also planted a variety of trees, shrubs, and flowers to adopt the park-like setting of so-called "lawn cemeteries" - a relatively new concept in those days.

The cemetery officially became known as Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery in 1993 after the nearby Angelus Funeral Home purchased the grounds. The cemetery is spread out over 65-acres and is the final resting place of over 100,000 individuals - many with their own unique stories to tell.

George Shatto

One of the more interesting private tombs at Angelus-Rosedale also dates back to the first decade of the cemetery's existence. The pyramid-shaped tomb is the final resting place of George R. Shatto, an early entrepreneur/developer in Los Angeles's history. However, it is his purchase and development of Santa Catalina Island for which he is best known. He bought the island for $200,000 in 1887 and is often credited as transforming the island into the tourist resort it is today. He did this by pinpointing an area on the southwest corner to build what is today the island's only city. Shatto's sister-in-law and her husband, Etta and Edwin Whitney, joined him in the venture and it is Etta that dubbed the new city, Avalon. To accomplish his goals, he began ferrying tourists in from the mainland and built the then-80-room Hotel Metrople. However, he quickly found that the overall costs were beyond his means and began defaulting on the mortgage payments. Only a mere five years into his dream, he lost the island. The subsequent owners continued the development and ultimately achieved where Shatto failed.

According to a report in the Los Angeles Times, Shatto met a "...sudden and shocking death" at the age of 33 in a train accident in Ravenna, California on June 1, 1883 and was buried at Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. His tomb is quite easily located from the road at the southwest corner of Section N.

George Goodfellow


A bit of Wild West history can also be found at Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. George Emory Goodfellow is often credited today for making several advances in the field of medicine (including being the first surgeon to successfully perform a laparotomy and prostatectomy and one of the first in the world to use spinal anesthesia), but is best remembered for his medical practice in the rough-and-tumble town of Tombstone, Arizona where he was credited as being one of the finest surgeons in the world.

During his years in Tombstone, he is said to have treated such famous gunfighters as Doc Holiday, Morgan and Virgil Earp, and Billy Clanton; reportedly even tending some of them following the famous shootout at the O.K. Corral. At the time, he was considered one of the foremost experts in the treatment of gunshot wounds - a practice which most credit to his experience in Tombstone.

Pauline Flood

One of the more tragic stories of Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery is surely the story of one-year-old Pauline Flood, who may be better known for her death than her brief acting career. Several sources state that Flood reportedly starred in nine silent films and a spattering of commercials under the moniker of "Baby Sunshine." However, none of those sources cite the films or work by name and her career is a bit of a mystery. What is known is that the young child star met a tragic end when she reportedly crawled in front of a moving truck on October 19, 1917 - becoming what one source cites as "...the youngest celebrity ever to have been killed by a car." Flood was buried in the southern tip of Section 7 (Lot 1, Grave 2N-2W) in what is the children's section of the cemetery. Her grave appears to be unmarked.

Eliza Poor Houghton


Eliza Poor Houghton was born Eliza Poor Donner on March 8, 1843 to George and Tamzene Donner. George Donner is best known today as the leader of the ill-fated Donner Party, who became trapped in the Sierra Nevada during the vicious winter of 1846-1847 as they made their way westward to settle in California. Eliza was a mere three years old during those fateful months and was one of the 48 settlers that survived, of which some had resorted to cannibalism in order to survive.

Among the 41 dead were Eliza's father, George, and her mother, Tamzene, who is regarded as something of a heroine for refusing to leave her dying husband when the third relief party departed with Eliza and her two sisters. When the relief party returned for the fourth time, Tamzene was nowhere to be found and her death (and missing body) has been the cause of great speculation ever since. The state of California has forever memorialized the tragedy of the Donner Party by establishing Donner Memorial State Park.

Following her rescue, Eliza and her sister, Georgia, went to live with Christian and Mary Brune who raised the girls. In 1861, Eliza married a California Congressman and San Jose resident, Sherman Otis Houghton and the couple later moved to Southern California. When a historian by the name of C.F. McGlashan came calling, Eliza was eager to set the record straight on the ill-fated party and began a long collaborative process that resulted in McGlashan publishing,History of the Donner Party (1879). The work is considered the foundational Donner book by scholars of today. Eliza turned to McGlashan again when it came time to publish her own memoir of the Donner Party, which was published in 1911 as The Expedition of the Donner Party and Its Tragic Fate. In 1918, she was involved with the construction of the Pioneer Monument at Donner Lake.

Eliza Poor Houghton died on February 19, 1922 of heart disease at the age of 78. She was laid to rest in her husband's plot at Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. The plot can be found on the western side of Section I (Lot 62, Grave 2SW) under her husband's name, engraved as "S.O. Houghton."

Harry Kellar

Houdini & Kellar

Angelus-Rosedale is also the final resting place of world-famous magician Harry Kellar.

By the time he was 20 years old, Kellar joined up forces with the renowned Davenport Brothers and Fay (Ira and William Davenport and William Fay), who made a name for themselves for playing off the so-called "spiritualism" of the Fox Sisters (see Rochester, New York) on stage. Kellar and Fay would later branch off as their own magician team for a short time. However, it was over thirty years on his own of tireless touring that Kellar finally was recognized as one of the best known magicians in the world.

Kellar belonged to the Royal Dynasty of Magic - a lineage of magicians who claim the title of "America's Premier Magician" with the preceding magician passing the mantle (and also reportedly his secrets) to their chosen successor. Some sources list the "Royal" line beginning with Kellar himself.

In his retirement, Kellar befriended fellow magician Harry Houdini who often claimed that he took Kellar's first name as his own stage name out of admiration. The two became close when Houdini spent a lot of time at Kellar's Los Angeles estate while interviewing him in an effort to chronicle the history of magic. Houdini even convinced Kellar to come out of retirement for one final show as a benefit to the families of men that were lost when a German U-boat sank their transport ship, Antilles. As a surprise, Houdini arranged for Kellar to be carried off stage following his performance, while the audience of thousands serenaded him with Auld Lang Syne.

Kellar passed away on March 10, 1922 at the age of 73 after spending the last two years of his life in poor health and was buried in Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. Today, his red-stone grave is marked with the inscription, "Beloved Dean of Magic." It can be found near the road under a small tree in Section L, directly to the right of the front of the mausoleum.

(see discussion of Inamorata in the ONBC Archives for more info on the Fox Sisters and Houdini.)

Louise Peete

After the verdict

Murderess Louise Preslar Peete is also buried in Angelus Rosedale Cemetery. The accounts of her crimes and history vary from source to source, so the following accounts may be somewhat exaggerated. Her murder spree supposedly began in 1903 at the age 21 when she shot her boyfriend to death and claimed it was in self-defense. Acquitted of the crime, she reportedly went on to cost the lives of many others. She allegedly drove four husbands to suicide by cheating on them, along with other acts of mental cruelty (some sources list the boyfriend mentioned above as being a husband who committed suicide). She shot, killed, and buried boyfriend, Jacob Denton, in the basement of his mansion. She then proceeded to take over his business affairs for months before she was finally arrested for the murder of the millionaire.

After serving only 19 years for the crime, Peete was released and took a job as a housekeeper. Soon after, two female customers and a female co-worker were dead. The deaths were ruled natural, but suspicious. It was not until she reportedly murdered employer Margaret Logan and took over her business affairs that she was once again arrested and finally sentenced to death in the gas chamber. Some sources claim that Logan and her husband, Arthur, were responsible for Louise Peete making her earlier parole, while others claim that it was one of the former deceased employers.

Regardless, Peete was ultimately executed at the age of 66 in the gas chamber of San Quentin Prison on April 11, 1947 for the murder of Margaret Logan. Her body was then interred in Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery; reportedly in Section G (Lot 19A, Space 65). The grave is unmarked.

Hattie McDaniel


Angelus-Rosedale is also the final resting place of prolific actress, singer-songwriter, comedienne, radio/television star, and Academy Award winning actress, Hattie McDaniel. Born to former slaves in 1895, McDaniel is credited today for paving the way for African-Americans in both film and society. It has been said that she appeared in over 300 films, while only receiving credit for around 80. She is credited with a series of firsts for an African-American woman. She is often credited as being the first black woman to sing on network radio, star on a radio sitcom with The Beulah Show (a role she later revisited on its television adaptation), and the first African American to be nominated for an Academy Award. The nomination was for her performance as the character of Mammy in Gone with the Wind (1939) and McDaniel won, making her the first African-American to win an Academy Award. In 2006, the United States Postal Service featured McDaniel in their Black Heritage series giving her another first - the first black Oscar winner to be featured on a stamp.

Despite all of her successes in life, McDaniel often dealt with racial stereotyping throughout her career. A good majority of her performances were in the role of a maid; something that caused controversy throughout the black community and raised protests from the likes of the NAACP. In response to the criticism, McDaniel was quoted as saying, "Why should I complain about making $700 a week playing a maid? If I didn't, I'd be making $7 a week being one."

In 1947, McDaniel helped organize fellow black residents in the West Adams area (dubbed "Sugar Hill" and also happens to be the area around the cemetery) of Los Angeles to successfully defend their property in court from local white residents that sought to have them evicted. The group of white homeowners had drawn up racial restrictive covenants, which sought to restrict the sale of homes to people of color. Due much in part to McDaniel's celebrity and organization efforts, the court threw out the case.

McDaniel passed away on October 26, 1952 of breast cancer at the age of 57. It was her expressed wish to be buried at what was then known as Hollywood Memorial Park (seeHollywood Forever Cemetery). However, she would face one final bout of discrimination from then-owner Jules Roth who refused her request by enforcing the cemetery's "whites only" policy. Her second choice was Angelus-Rosedale and despite protests from local white citizens, the owners of the cemetery readily agreed, which appropriately secured McDaniel one final first - the first African-American to be buried at Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. Her funeral was a lavish affair and attended by around 3,000 mourners.

Following change of ownership in 1999, the new management behind the renamed Hollywood Forever Cemetery attempted to correct the injustice of the cemetery's past and offered to move McDaniel's remains to the grounds she chose as her preferred final resting place. McDaniel's family denied the request, reportedly concerned about disturbing her grave after so much time. Instead, Hollywood Forever erected a cenotaph in her honor and prominently placed it in on the south side of the lake inside the Garden of Legends. McDaniel's grave at Angelus-Rosedale is located in Section D (Lot 24) - directly across the road from the office.

Tod Browning


Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery is the final resting place for classic horror film director Tod Browning. While Browning dabbled in most of the other genres as well, it is his work in the horror genre that earned him the moniker of "The Master of the Macabre" and for which he is best known today. Of the horror films he made, his adaptation of the Bram Stoker novel Dracula(1931), starring Bela Lugosi in the title role, is easily his most recognizable work.

Born as Charles A. Browning Jr. to a prominent family in Louisville, Kentucky in 1880, Browning decided to give it all up at the age of 16 and ran away to join a circus. There, he changed his name to Tod and took up a variety of jobs in the carnival life. His journey ultimately led him to New York where he met up with film director D.W. Griffith and began acting in several of Griffith's movies, ultimately moving to Los Angeles. Before long, he took up directing several short silent films and his career was on the rise. Following a near-fatal car accident that took the life of actor Elmer Booth, and severely injured both Browning and actor George Siegmann, Browning landed his first directing job on a feature length film with Jim Bludso (1917).

He and Lon Chaney were the Tim Burton and Johnny Depp of that era. He an Chaney collaborated on many films prior to Dracula--The Wicked Darling(1919), The Unholy Three (1925), The Unknown (1927), London After Midnight (1927).

In 1931, Browning would really hit the mark with the highly successful adaptation of Dracula; a film of which he directed, produced, and wrote (the latter of which he received no credit). Originally, the role of the count had been intended for Lon Chaney, but after his death, the producers settled on Hungarian actor, Bela Lugosi, who was already receiving rave reviews in the role on Broadway. Interestingly enough, Lugosi had already appeared in a supporting role in Browning's The Thirteenth Chair (1929). Dracula would go on to be a smash-hit and usher in the era of Universal horror movies.

He went on to make a few more films over the next few years—Freaks, Mark of the Vampire (1935) (where he re-teamed with Lugosi) and a remake of London After Midnight; but by 1939 his filmmaking days were over.

When his wife, Alice (who starred in films under the name Alice Wilson), passed away in 1944, Browning began to live a life of isolation. Soon after, trade newspaper Variety mistakenly printed his obituary. It is said that Browning refused to talk about his career in films with anybody and left no writings or personal reflections. In 1958, he moved into a friend's home (reportedly his veterinarian) in Brentwood where he ultimately passed away on October 6, 1962 after a battle with cancer and a recent stroke. His body was cremated and interred with the remains of his wife and her family. His marker can be found in the Mausoleum on the grounds of Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery around halfway down the east wall of the left-side corridor from the entrance.

Everett Sloane

Sloane & Brando

A major part of radio history is also found at Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. Actor Everett Sloane got his start in theatre, but quickly found his way onto radio dramas in the 1930s. For eight years until 1938, Sloane had a recurring role on the popular radio series, The Shadow, before joining an impressive troupe of talent in the Mercury Theatre company, founded by Orson Welles and John Houseman. Despite initial sluggish ratings, the group made a splash with their October 30, 1938 radio adaptation of the H.G. Wells novel, The War of the Worlds (in which Sloane played a role). The first two-thirds of the broadcast were presented without commercial break as a series of faux news bulletins about a Martian invasion. The program ignited a minor panic on the east coast of America and propelled the troupe into the limelight, securing a new sponsor for the program and drawing the attention of Hollywood.

Sloane made the move with Orson Wells to Hollywood and made his big-screen debut in the classic Wells film, Citizen Kane, playing Kane's business manager, Bernstein. The performance landed him a variety of future film roles, but it was in radio and television that Sloane remained the most active. During the following years, Sloane appeared in countless episodes of genre-related television shows - such as Suspense, Inner Sanctum, Lights Out, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Suspicion, Thriller, and even an episode on the first season of The Twilight Zone.

Later in life, Sloane began to suffer from a severe case of glaucoma that threatened to blind him. On August 6, 1965, Sloane reportedly took his own life at the age of 55 with an overdose of barbiturates in his Brentwood home. His body was cremated and his ashes were interred in Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. They can be found in the Mausoleum on the Front North Wall facing directly to the left after entering the building.

Maria Rasputin


Even the history of Russia is preserved in Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery. The grounds are the final resting place for Maria G. Rasputin, who may be better known as the daughter of the "Mad Monk" - Grigori (Gregory) Rasputin - a reputed psychic, faith healer, prophet, and mystic whose influence over Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra was said to have led to his assassination and the fall of the House of Romanov.

Following her father's assassination and the Russian Revolution of 1917, Rasputin emigrated to Bucharest and later Paris, taking up such jobs as a cabaret dancer and governess. In the 1930s, Rasputin was touring the United States and Europe as a lion tamer for Ringling Brothers Circus before being mauled by a bear in Indiana. She later left the circus and went to work as a ship riveter in Miami, Florida. By 1965, she had relocated yet again to Los Angeles where she remained until her death.

During her life, Rasputin claimed to have inherited some of her father's psychic powers and authored several memoirs about her father in an effort to clear his name and shoot down various falsehoods she claimed were being published. In 1968, she met with famed Anna Anderson, who claimed to be the Grand Duchess Anastasia and the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II. According to accounts, Rasputin gave her seal of approval that Anderson was the real deal, only to take it back after Anderson turned down her offer to come to Los Angeles to join the party circuit.

Rasputin died of heart failure on September 27, 1977 at the age of 79. She was buried in Section H (Lot 189, Grave 1N). Her grave is located at the top-center of the section.

Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994)


Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery got the big-screen treatment in the seventh entry in the A Nightmare on Elm Street series, Wes Craven's New Nightmare. The film is a return of original director Wes Craven who transports the mythology of the series into the real world. The film stars actress Heather Langenkamp who appeared as Nancy Thompson in the first film, but this time playing the role of herself in a reality where A Nightmare on Elm Street's Freddy Krueger is simply just a movie villain. In this new "reality," the popularity of the horror icon has unleashed a presence of pure evil that has adopted his form and is targeting Langenkamp, as it was her character that stopped him in the original film.

The cemetery appears in the funeral service scene of Langenkamp's fictional husband, Chase Porter (David Newsom). Interestingly, the character of Porter is one of the few "fictional" characters in Wes Craven's New Nightmare. In fact, this particular scene features several A Nightmare on Elm Street veterans appearing as their "real-life" selves. They include Craven, Robert Shaye (series producer), Robert Englund (who played Freddy), John Saxon (who played Nancy's father in the first film), Tuesday Knight (who played Kristen Parker in A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master), Nick Corri (who played Rod Lane in the first film), as well as others.

Another interesting tidbit from this particular sequence is the fact that the scene features a minor earthquake, which is a recurring motif throughout Wes Craven's New Nightmare. Only a few days after the film's production crew simulated the earthquake in the cemetery, Los Angeles was hit by the very-real Northridge earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 that took 72 lives and caused over $20 billion dollars worth of damage. Some of the damage from the earthquake can be witnessed in later scenes in the film, as the crew eerily blended their fictional story with that of the real world.

Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997-2003)


This cemetery also doubled as Sunnydale's cemetery in the WB/UPN television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Apparently this cemetery was primarily used in the first season, as a fake cemetery was built in the parking lot of the studio set to make life easier for the filmmakers. There is also a legend floating around that actress Sarah Michelle Gellar had a fear of cemeteries, which also precipitated the move. Still, the Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery would still be used when the shots required a more elaborate setting. Other shows filmed here reportedly included the WB series Charmed, as well as the HBO series, Six Feet Under.

Pg. 93:
THE HALCYON THEATRE IN DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES HAD been closed for more than thirty years, sitting like an old pensioner on the side of Broadway and watching over the decades as the neighborhood went from flush to bad to mixed and now, in an attempt at urban revitalization, on its way to flush again……….

Pg. 94: In the early part of the last century, the Halcyon had begun life as a legitimate theater. Sarah Bernhardt had actually done one of her strange but alluring interpretations of Hamlet on the stage.

The Halcyon is actually a theater in Chicago.

But I see that the Broadway district downtown LA was quite the theater district in the day.

Click on the Historic Theater Photo Gallery

And today, premieres are held at the Orpheum, one of these old theaters in the area (see map). This is from the premiere of Machete:


I wasn’t planning on doing a tidbit on Sarah Bernhardt. But when I read this quote over again, her name rang a bell. You see, my daughter is playing the role of Sarah Siddon in the one act play, The Actor’s Nightmare. And I remembered the announcer saying just before she came on stage for the second time, “The role of Amanda, normally played by Sarah Bernhardt, will be played by Sarah Siddon.” Note that Amanda also plays Hamlet’s mother in this play. And I looked it up on line just to make sure I heard it correctly. I swear I live in the Twilight Zone.

So here is a brief bio of Sarah Bernhardt……


She was born in Paris as Henriette Rosine Bernard, the eldest surviving illegitimate daughter of Judith van Hard, a Dutch Jewish courtesan known as "Youle." Her father was reportedly Edouard Bernard, a French lawyer, and she was educated in French Catholic convents. To support herself, she combined the career of an actress with that of a courtesan - at the time, the two were considered scandalous to a roughly equal degree. She was sponsored into the Conservatoire de Musique et Déclamation by the Duc de Morny in 1859 for theatrical training.

Her stage career started in 1862, largely in comic theatre and burlesque. She made her fame on the stages of Europe in the 1870s, and was soon in demand all over Europe and in the United States. She soon developed a reputation as a serious dramatic actress, earning the title, "The Divine Sarah"; arguably, she may have been the most famous actress of the 19th century.

Although primarily a stage actress, Bernhardt made several cylinders and discs of famous dialogue from various productions. One of the earliest was a reading from Phèdre by Jean Racine, at Thomas Edison's home on a visit to New York City in the 1880s. Multi-talented, she was involved with the visual arts as well as acting, painting and sculpting herself, as well as modelling for Antonio de La Gandara. She was also to publish a series of books and plays throughout her life.

Her social life was as continuously active. She had an affair with a Belgian nobleman, Charles-Joseph-Eugene-Henri, Prince de Ligne, with whom she had her only child, the writer Maurice Bernhardt, in 1864 (he married a Polish princess, Maria Jablonowska, 1863-1914). Later lovers included several artists (Gustave Doré and Georges Clarin) and actors (Mounet-Sully and Lou Tellegen). She married Greek-born actor Aristides Damala (aka Jacques Damala) in London in 1882, but the marriage, which legally endured until Damala's death in 1889 at age 34, was quickly collapsed, largely due to the young actor's dependence on morphine.

Bernhardt was also one of the pioneer silent movie actresses, debuting as Hamlet in Le Duel d'Hamlet in 1900. (Technically, this was not a silent film, as it had accompanying cylinders with dubbed dialogue.) She went on to star in eight motion pictures and two biographical films in all. The latter included Sarah Bernhardt à Belle-Isle (1912), a film about her daily life at home.

Sarah Bernhardt was made a member of France's Legion of Honor in 1914.

In 1915, ten years after a serious injury, her right leg was amputated, confining her to a wheelchair for several months. Nonetheless, she continued her career, in spite of the need to use a wooden prosthetic limb. She died in the arms of her son Maurice. She is buried in Le Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, France.

Sarah Bernhardt has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1751 Vine Street.

The actress La Berma, a fictional character in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time was inspired by Bernhardt.

She also occupies an unfortunate place in the car culture of Los Angeles. Bernhardt was one of the first celebrities to be injured in an automobile accident in the City of Angels. The mishap occurred on the evening of March 12, 1913, at the intersection of Washington and Crenshaw boulevards, while she was being driven in a taxi to the downtown Orpheum Theatre to appear in "La Tosca,” which I believe is an opera that Special listens to.

The red-haired actress was en route from Venice Beach, where she had rented an entire floor of the King George Hotel. (prior to 1913 (in 1906), she had come to Venice to perform La Tosca in Venice Auditorium) Why did she perform there? Los Angeles theater owners had boycotted the famous actress. Why did they do that? Well, she dressed in men's clothing to perform men's roles. And not shabby little cross-dressing comedies mind you, but--Hamlet! Their prudish refusal to book the Divine Sarah resulted in a huge coup for Abbot Kinney, who dined with the actress before her shows and made big bucks from the performances.

But she liked to stay in Venice because she wanted "the benefit of the open sea and the fresh breezes," and because she could fish. (NOTE: Halcyon is defined in Greek mythology as a woman who turns into a Kingfisher)

She was running late the night of the accident.

Roger Harvys, her taxi driver, said years later that she "had taken longer than usual to get ready because she wanted to watch the sunset over the ocean. When she got into the cab, her maid told me to drive rapidly."

Harvys obeyed, winding it up to 18 mph.

Crossing Crenshaw, he recalled, "I saw a chance to make time, and dodged around a streetcar, and there was this moving van without taillights. And before I could twist out of the way, we struck."

The Times carried an un-bylined, somewhat irreverent account of the rear-end collision. The article said Bernhardt's "pretty ankles" had been injured but "not seriously."

The actress was quoted as exclaiming, upon leaving the car, "The theater! The theater! I must be at the theater in 10 minutes."

The driver of the van could not understand her pronunciation of the word theater, the article said.

Finally, the driver asked, "Oh, be you an actress then?"

She yelled back that she was, reportedly calling the driver an "idiot."

Meanwhile, another motorist stopped and offered Bernhardt a ride. She accepted, but his car was so crowded that she rode on his lap, the article said.

True to the-show-must-go-on tradition, Bernhardt performed that night, with the curtain rising just 10 minutes late.

Years later, in his book "Los Angeles: City of Dreams," former Times columnist Harry Carr identified himself as the writer of the anonymous article.

He said Bernhardt was so incensed by his account that "she hired billboards all over town to denounce me and my iniquities…the press agent following with a second detachment of billboard stickers to paste over the denunciation."

Not only was the press coverage a pain, but her injury was not so routine either.

The impact had thrown the 68-year-old actress against a rear door.

Harvys later said that when Bernhardt emerged from the car "she was groaning" and "had her hand on her right knee and she limped."

A few years earlier, she had badly hurt the same knee when jumping off a parapet during a performance in Rio de Janeiro (the stage crew had forgotten to place a mattress on the floor to break her fall).

Her reinjured leg was never the same.

The day after the accident in Los Angeles, she was forced to cancel an engagement. She resolutely finished the tour a few weeks later and returned to France. But In 1915, gangrene set in, and her leg was amputated.

The indefatigable actress did not retire, however. Instead, she performed on stage all over the world while on a chair or a bed, and made several movies as well.

"I accept being maimed," she explained, "but I refuse to remain powerless. Work is my life."

The Divine Sarah could be wry about her condition.

Author H. Jack Lang wrote that at one point an American promoter cabled her, "We offer you 100,000 dollars to exhibit your leg." She is said to have cabled back: "Which one?"

Bernhardt even returned to perform in the United States.

Times reader Ormon K. Flood wrote columnist Jack Smith six decades later that he could still remember seeing her at the Orpheum, playing "the title role in 'Camille' entirely in bed. Afterward she took her curtain calls standing behind a chair. The applause was great."

She worked almost to the moment of her death from kidney disease in 1923 at the age of 78. A stand-in was used in some scenes of her last film, "La Voyante" ("The Fortune Teller").

Harvys, her taxi driver the night of the mishap, always felt guilty.

"It was the only accident I ever had with a passenger," he told The Times. He also recalled that moments after the collision, "she told me not to worry and laughed about the thing. So I didn't think it was so serious."

Harvys didn't know it at the time, but there, at the intersection of Washington and Crenshaw, Bernhardt had just demonstrated what a great actress she was.

Staples Center

Pg. 93-94:
There were still drug dealers but they drove Porsches now and let their girlfriends dance with the stoned young movie execs in the hip clubs that hand sprung up near the Staples Center.

Does Starbucks Count as a Hip Club?

Construction broke ground in 1998 and the Staples Center was opened a year later. It was financed privately at a cost of $375 million and is named for the office-supply company Staples, Inc., which was one of the center's corporate sponsors that paid for naming rights.

The venue opened as the home of the NBA's Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers, as well as the NHL's Los Angeles Kings in 1999. The WNBA's Los Angeles Sparks joined in 2001, while the NBA D-League's Los Angeles D-Fenders joined in 2006.

The arena opened on October 17, 1999, with a Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band concert as its inaugural event. Since its opening day, it has hosted seven NBA Finals series, with the Lakers, three WNBA Finals, the 2000 Democratic National Convention, the 2002 U.S. Figure Skating Championships, the 52nd NHL All-Star game, the 2004 NBA All-Star Game, the Pac-10 Basketball Finals, since 2002, the WTA Tour Championships, from 2002-2005, UFC 60 in 2006, the inaugural Latin Grammy Awards in 2000, the annual Grammy Awards, since 2000, with the exception of 2003, the 2009 World Figure Skating Championships, the Summer X Games indoor competitions, since 2003, as well as numerous concerts and HBO Championship Boxing matches. In addition to hosting WrestleMania 21, which held the venue's attendance record of 20,193, until it was surpassed in January 2009, for the Shane Mosley vs Antonio Margarito Welterweight fight, which drew 20,820 people, it has also hosted Unforgiven 2002, Judgment Day 2004, No Way Out 2007, SummerSlam 2009 and SummerSlam 2010, as well as other WWE events. The Los Angeles Kings, of theNHL hosted the 2010 NHL Entry Draft at the arena in June 2010.

On October 21, 2009, Staples Center celebrated its 10th anniversary. To commemorate the occasion, the venue's official website nominated 25 of the arena's greatest moments from its first ten years with fans voting on the top ten.

Click on thumbnail:


Staples Center website:
You can't judge a book by its cover.

The only thing that matters is the ending. It's the most important part of the story.

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Re: Babylon Nights Tidbit #8 ~ LA Tour

Unread postby fansmom » Thu Dec 09, 2010 12:04 am

Wow, what a fascinating bunch of stories!

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Re: Babylon Nights Tidbit #8 ~ LA Tour

Unread postby Liz » Thu Dec 09, 2010 12:16 am

I know! I wasn't going to include them, but they were so dang interesting. :-O And I imagine every cemetery includes fascinating folks. We just don't necessarily come upon the information. This is why I broke up this tidbit into 2.
You can't judge a book by its cover.

The only thing that matters is the ending. It's the most important part of the story.

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Re: Babylon Nights Tidbit #8 ~ LA Tour

Unread postby ladylinn » Thu Dec 09, 2010 4:58 pm

Liz, I really enjoyed the Hollywood and the LA tours. The stories and pictures make it so interesting. I have never been to LA, so loved all the history. Thanks - and job well done! :hatsoff:

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Re: Babylon Nights Tidbit #8 ~ LA Tour

Unread postby fireflydances » Sun Dec 12, 2010 12:31 am

I agree! In my mind, because I've never been there, LA is always freeway images stolen out out movies I've seen and Beverly Hills, although I understand this place as a collection of stores for the rich, what does Beverly Hills look like? Something doesn't live and walk in the imagination unless it's given weight through the use of descriptions, like what you've done here. I see Koreatown now, and I can place it in a context -- it unfolds over time, the buildings get taller, the Ambassador Hotel, the neon signs like Tokyo. I want to see it in person now.

Also loved the stuff on the cemetery. I lived for a number of years in Brooklyn, New York City. There was a very old cemetery there, Greenwood. It was like an enchanted forest, a jewel-park of almost 500 acres that was half tree half stone masoleums. We had a picnic there once, fried chicken amongst the long dead. Yes, you felt like you were being watched; we never did it again. Fascinating places.

Finally, Bernhardt. That is an exquisite picture of her. And it's funny how some times things cluster around points in our lives. Bernhardt, your daughter's role, the book quote. A while ago I began to take these little 'stars' quite seriously, like trail markers. Sometimes appear to come in threes. First time nothing, second time hey and the third time, I got the memo, paying attention. Next marker?
"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested." Sir Francis Bacon, Of Studies

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