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 Post subject: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Wed Sep 29, 2010 11:58 am 
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Andre Gide 1869 - 1951

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ATLA pg. 230 (He is also mentioned on pg. 262.) "I went to Nice three days ago and drank good scotch, and I met the old Andre Gide at the post office. Do you know him? The old French writer who got the Nobel Prize last year. They have translated his Diary in USA, a long tedious book, chiefly for American people who don't know what it is all about: he speaks of many small French people, French things, you would not be interested. But he was the great leader of past times, a very clever man, funny by some ways, struggling fro freedom and pederasty. Now he is an old man, with spectacles and a round soft hat and he made me laugh because he was so friendly but so anxious not to see people more than three minutes: he feels tired, being old."


French writer, humanist, and moralist who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1947. As a novelist, and still more as an intellectual in search of a moral way, Gide has appealed to different audiences: a traditional psychological novelist to some, a taboo-breaker to others; he was a major literary critic, social crusader, and spokesman for homosexual rights. Gide's search for self – the underlying theme of his several works – remained essentially religious. Throughout his career Gide used his writings to examine moral questions in a relentless critical spirit.

After the mid-1920s Gide became a champion of society's victims, who demanded more humane conditions for criminals. He had observed social injustices more closely than many other writers from the 1890s – first as mayor of a commune in Normandy (1896), and later as a juror in Rouen (1912), and then as a special envoy of the Colonial Ministry (1925-26).

Gide's trip to the U.S.S.R., where he was given the place of honor at the funeral of Maxim Gorky and seated next to Stalin on various occasions, led to his famous break with Communism. André Malraux advised him not to publish his report on the journey, RETOUR DE L'URSS (1936), in which Gide made a decisive break with the Soviets. The appearance of the book at the crucial moments of the Spanish Civil War made Gide the target of Leftist wrath. From 1942 until the end of WW II, Gide lived in North Africa. After the war Communist writers tarred him as a Nazi collaborator. In the 1940s Gide began receive honors, which culminated in the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947 was awarded to André Gide "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight". Gide's correspondence with his friends Francis Jammes (pub. 1948) and Paul Claudel (pub. 1949) reveals their unsuccessful attempt to convert the author to Catholicism, but Gide remained more concerned with self-examination than religion. The Roman Catholic Church placed his works on the Index of Forbidden Books in 1952.

Selected works:

• LES CAHIERS D'ANDRÉ WALTER, 1891 - The White Notebook (tr. 1965) / The Notebook of André Walter (tr. by Wade Baskin)
• LE TRAITÉ DU NARCISSE, 1891 - Narcissus (tr. 1953)
• LES POÉSIES D'ANDRÉ WALTER, 1892
• LA TENTATIVE AMOUREUSE, 1893 - The Lover's Attempt (tr. in The Return of the Prodigal Son)
• LE VOYAGE D'URIEN, 1893 - Urien's Voyage (tr. by Wade Baskin, 1952)
• PALUDES, 1895 - Marshlands (tr. by George D. Painter)
• LES NOURRITURES TERRESTRES, 1897 - Fruits of the Earth (trans. by Maggie Jarvis)
• RÉFLEXIONS SUR QUELQUES POINTS BDE LITTÉRATURE ET DE MORALE, 1897
• LE PROMÉTHÉE MAL ENCHAÎNÉ, 1899 - Prometheus Illbound (tr. by Lilian Rothermere) / Prometheus Misbound (tr. by George D. Painter)
• EL HADJ, 1899 - El Hadj (tr. 1953)
• FEUILLES DE ROUTE 1895-1896, 1899
• PHILOCTÈTE, 1899 (play) - Philoctetes (tr. 1952)
• L'INFLUENCE EN LITTÉRATURE, 1900
• LETTRES À ANGELE (1898-1899), 1900
• LE ROI CANDAULE, 1901 (play) - King Candaules (tr. 1952)
• LES LIMITES DE L'ART, 1901
• L'IMMORALISTE, 1902 - The Immoralist (translators: Dorothy Bussy ; Richard Howard ; Stanley Appelbaum ; David Watson)
• SAÜL, 1903 (play, prod. 1922) - Saul (in My Theatre, 1951)
• DE L'IMPORTANCE DU PUBLIC, 1903
• PRÉTEXTES, 1903 - Pretexts (ed. by Justin O'Brien, tr. by Angelo P. Bertocci et al.)
• AMYNTAS, 1906 - Amyntas (tr. by Richard Howard)
• LE RETOUR DE L'ENFANT PRODIGUE, 1907 (play, prod. 1928) - The Return of the Prodical (tr. 1953)
• LA PORTE ÉTROITE, 1909 - Strait is the Gate (tr. by Dorothy Bussy) - Ahdas portti (suom. Ilta Larva)
• OSCAR WILDE, 1910 - Oscar Wilde: a Study (tr. by Lucy Gordon)
• ISABELLE, 1911 - Isabelle (tr. 1931) / Two Symphonies (tr. by Dorothy Bussy)
• CHARLES-LOUIS PHILIPPE, 1911
• C.R.D.N., 1911
• NOUVEAUX PRÉTEXTES, 1911
• BETHSABÉ, 1912 (play) - Bathsheba (tr. 1952)
• SOUVENIRS DE LA COUR D'ASSISES, 1914 - Recollections of the Azzize Court (tr. by Philip A. Wilkins, 1941)
• LES CAVES DU VATICAN, 1914 - The Vatican Swindle (tr. 1925) / The Vatican Cellars (tr. by Dorothy Bussy) / Lafcadio's Adventures (tr. by Dorothy Bussy)
• translator: Typhon, by Conrad, 1918
• LA SYMPHONIE PASTORALE, 1919 - The Pastoral Symphony (tr. by Dorothy Bussy) - Pastoraalisinfonia (suom. Reino Hakamies) - film 1946, dir. by Jean Delannoy, screenplay by Jean Aurenche and Pierre Bost, starring Michele Morgan, Pierre Blanchar, Line Noro, Jean Dessailly. - "And so we have in this film a wonderful example of a type of film worth looking at, but a type which, though especially dependent on adaptation, was not supple enough to do justice to the literature it celebrated." (Dudley Andrew in Modern European Filmmakers and the Art of Adaptation, ed. by Andrew S. Horton and Joan Magretta, 1981)
• CORYDON, 1920 - Corydon (tr. by Richard Howard)
• ANTOINE ET CLÉOPATRE, 1920 (play, from the play by Shakespeare, in Théâtre complet, 1949)
• MORCEAUX CHOISIS, 1921
• AMAL; OU, LA LETTRE DU ROI, 1922 (play, based on the work by Tagore, prod. 1928)
• NUMQUID ET TU...?, 1922 - Journal (tr. 1952)
• DOSTOÏEVSKY, 1923 - Dostoevsky (tr. by Arnold Bennett)
• INCIDENCES, 1924
• SI LE GRAIN NE MEURT..., 1924-26 - If It Die... (tr. by Dorothy Bussy) - Ellei vehnänjyvä kuole (suom. Leena Löfstedt)
• CARACTÈRES, 1925
• LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS, 1926 - The Counterfeiters (tr. by Dorothy Bussy) / The Coiners (tr. 1950) - Vääränrahantekijät (suom. Yrjö Kaijärvi)
• LE JOURNAL DES FAUX-MONNAYEURS, 1926 - The Logbook of the Coiners (tr. by Justin O’Brien)
• DINDIKI, 1927
• ÉMILE VERHAEREN, 1927
• JOSEPH CONRAD, 1927
• VOYAGE AU CONGO, 1927 - Travels in the Congo (tr. by Dorothy Bussy)
• LE RETOUR DU TCHAD, 1928 - Back from the Chad, in Travels in the Congo
• UN ESPRIT NON PRÉVENU, 1929
• ESSAI SUR MONTAIGNE, 1929 - Montaigne (tr. 1929)
• L'ECOLE DES FEMMES, 1929 - The School for Wives (trans. by Dorothy Bussy) - Naisten koulu (suom. Ilta Larva)
• ROBERT: SUPPLÉMENT A L'ÉCOLE DES FEMMES, 1930 (play, prod. 1946; as Robert; ou, L'Intérêt général. 1949) - Robert (suom. Ilta Larva)
• translator (with J. Schiffrin): Nouvelles; Récits, by Pushkin, 1929-35 (2 vols.)
• LETTRES, 1930
• L'AFFAIRE REDUREAU, SUIVE DE FAITS DIVERS, 1930
• LA SÉQUESTRÉE DE POITIERS, 1930
• NE JUGEZ PAS, 1930 - Judge Not (tr. by Benjamin Ivry)
• ŒDIPE, 1931 (play) - Oedipus (tr. by John Russell)
• JACQUES RIVIÈRE, 1931
• DIVERS, 1931
• OEUVRES COMPLÈTES, 1932-39 (15 vols.; Index, 1954)
• translator: Arden of Faversham, in Le Théâtre élizabethain, 1933
• PERSÉPHONE, 1934 (play, music by Igor Stravinsky) - Persephone (tr. by Samuel Putnam)
• LES NOUVELLES NOURRITURES, 1935 - The New Fruits, in Fruits of the Earth (tr. by Dorothy Bussy)
• GENEVIÈVE, 1936 (play) - Genevieve (tr. 1950)
• RETOUR DE L'URSS, 1936 - Return from the U.S.S.R. (tr. by Dorothy Bussy) / Back from the U.S.S.R. (trans. by Dorothy Bussy)
• RETOUCHES À MON "RETOUR DE L'USSR", 1937 - Afterthoughts on the U.S.S.R. (tr. 1938)
• DEUX RÉCRITS, 1928
• JOURNAL 1889-1939, 1939 - Journal 1889-1949 (tr. 1952)
• editor: The Living Thoughts of Montaigne, 1939
• LE TREIZIÈME ARBRE, 1939 (play, prod. 1939, in Théâtre, 1942)
• DÉCOUVRONS HENRI MICHAUX, 1941
• LE TREIZIÈME ARBRE, 1942
• ATTENDU QUE, 1943
• INTERVIEWS IMAGINAIRES, 1943 - Imaginary Interviews (tr. by Malcolm Cowley)
• JEUNESSE, 1945
• DEUX INTERVIEWS IMAGINAIRES, SUIVIS DE FEUILLETS, 1946
• LETTRES À CHRISTIAN BECK, 1946
• SOUVENIRS LITTÉRATURES ET PROBLÈMES ACTUELS, 1946
• JOURNAL 1939-42, 1946 - Journal 1889-1949 (tr. 1952)
• THÉSÉE, 1946 - Theseus (tr. by John Russell)
• HAMLET, 1946 (play, from the novel by Shakespeare, in Théâtre complèt, 1949)
• ET NUNC MANET IN TE, 1947 - The Secret Drama of My Life (tr. 1951) / Madeleine (tr. 1952)
• PAUL VALERY, 1947
• POÉTIQUE, 1947
• LE PROCÈS, 1947 (play, with Jean-Louis Barrault, from the novel by Kafka)
• THÉÂTRE COMPLET, 1947-49 (plays, 8 vols.)
• PRÉFACES, 1948
• NOTES SUR CHOPIN, 1948 - Notes on Chopin (tr. by Bernard Frechtman)
• FEUILLETS D'AUTOMNE, 1949 - Autumn Leaves (tr. by Elsie Pell)
• ROBERT; OU, L'INTERÊT GÉNÉRAL, 1949
• editor: Anthologie de la poésie française, 1949
• LETTRES, 1950 (with Charles du Bos)
• LES CAVES DU VATICAN, 1950 (play, from the novel, prod. 1933)
• LITTÉRATURE ENGAGÉE, 1950 (ed. by Yvonne Davet)
• JOURNAL 1942-49, 1950 - Journal 1889-1949 (tr. 1952)
• ET NUNC MANET IN TE, 1951 - The Secret Drama of My Life (tr. by Keene Wallis) / Madeleine (tr. by Justin O’Brien)
• My Theater; Five Plays and an Essay, 1951 (translated by Jackson Mathews)
• translator: Prométhée, by Goethe, 1951
• ÉGYPTE 1939, 1951
• AINSI SOIT-IL, 1952 - So Be It (trans. by Justin O’Brien)
• ŒUVRES COMPLÈTES, 1932-1954
• ANDRÉ GIDE - PAUL VALÉRY: CORRESPONDANCE, 1890-1942 - Self Portraits, the Gide / Valéry Letters, 1890-1942
• CORRESPONDANCE (1891-1938) / ANDRÉ GIDE ET ALBERT MOCKEL, 1975
• ANDRÉ GIDE - JEF LAST: CORRESPONDANCE, 1934-1950, 1985
• ANDRÉ GIDE, CORRESPONDANCE AVEC FRANCIS VIELÉ-GRIFFIN: 1891-1931, 1986
• ANDRÉ GIDE - ANNA DE NOAILLES: CORRESPONDANCE, 1902-1928, 1986
• CORRESPONDANCE , 1895-1950 / ANDRÉ GIDE, ANDRÉ RUYTERS, 1990
• CORRESPONDANCE (1891-1911) / ANDRÉ GIDE, HENRI DE RÉGNIER, 1997
• L'ENFANCE DE L'ART: CORRESPONDANCES AVEC ELIE ALLÉGRET (1886-1896), 1998
• ESSAIS CRITIQUES, 1999 (ed. by Pierre Masson)
• CORRESPONDANCE , 1895-1921 / EDOUARD DUCOTÉ, ANDRÉ GIDE, 2002
• CORRESPONDANCE: 1892-1945 / ANDRÉ GIDE, MAURICE DENIS, 2006


Stendahl Pseudonym of Marie-Henri Beyle 1783 - 1842

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ATLA pg. 252 "You must read Stendhal's Red and Black. I don't know if that is the way they translated it. Don't forget, it is hundred years old and may look a little old-fashioned but it will learn you something about France, and I believe he is the greatest French novelist we ever had."

One of the most original French writers of the first half of the 19th century, who played a major role in the development of the modern novel. Stendhal is best known for his masterpieces LE ROUGE ET LE NOIR (1830) and LA CHARTREUSE DE PARME (1839), sharp and passionate chronicles of the intellectual and moral climate of France after Napoleon's defeat. Stendhal also wrote travel books, literature and art reviews, and biographies about such composers as W.A. Mozart and Joseph Haydn. Stendhal's subjects are often melodramatic, but they form a fascinating frame for his psychologically deep stories of selfishness and different paths towards self-discovery.

Stendhal's first novel, ARMANCE, a psychological story about impotence, was published in 1827. The Red and the Black appeared when the author was 47. It examined political and social conditions of France during the period 1815-30 through the experiences of Julien Sorel, a hero and villain. As often in Stendhal's novels, the protagonist is in search of himself. Julien is a carpenter's son, who can memorize everything and anything. He tries to achieve greatness and establish his place in the world by the force of his will, and by using seduction as a tool for social climbing. He shoots at his first employer, Mme de Rênal, in a church. She is the only woman he loves, but she is an obstacle in his projected marriage to the aristocratic Mathilde de la Mole. Mathilde loves Julien passionately, but Julien is bored. Finally he reveals his true self in his speech to his judges: "Gentlemen, I have not the honour to belong to your social class. You see in me a peasant in revolt against the baseness of his fate... I see men who would like in my person to punish and dishearten for ever that class of young people who, born in a lowly and poverty-stricken class, had the chance to educate themselves and the courage to associate with those circles which arrogance of the rich calls society..." de Rênal tries to save Julien and dies after he has been taken to the guillotine. The title of the book refers to Julien's character and choices of career: the army, symbolized by the color red, and the church, symbolized by the color black. Behind the story was a newspaper account which Stendhal had read in 1827. It told of the trial of a young man charged with the attempted murder of a married woman.

The Charterhouse of Parma was published to Balzac's acclaim in 1839. The great author himself, celebrating the work, said that it "often contains a whole book in a single page." From 1841 Stendhal was on sick leave from his post, living in Paris. He died on March 23, 1842 in Paris, smitten by apoplexy in the street. His work was rediscovered in the 1870s. It has influenced among others George Gissing, Henry James, Joseph Conrad, and Robert Louis Stevenson.

Selected works:

• VIE DE HAYDN, DE MOZART ET DE MÉTASTASE, 1814 (as Vies de Haydn, de Mozart, et de Métastase, 1817) - The Lives of Haydn and Mozart: with Observations on Métastasio, and on the Present State of Music in France and Italy (trans. L.A.C. Bombet, 1818) / Lives of Haydn, Mozart and Métastasio (transl. and ed. by Richard N. Coe, 1972)
• VIE DE NAPOLÉON, 1817 - A Life of Napoleon (trans. Roland Grant, 1956)
• VIE DE MOZART, 1814 - The Life of Mozart (trans. Daniel Sloate, 1991)
• ROME, NAPLES ET FLORENCE EN 1817, 1817 (rev. ed., 1926) - Rome, Naples and Florence (trans. Richard N. Coe, 1959)
• HISTOIRE DE LA PEINTURE EN ITALIE, 1817
• DE L'AMOUR, 1822 - On Love (tr. by H. B. V. under the direction of C. K .Scott-Moncrieff) / Love (tr. by Gilbert and Suzanne Sale) - Rakkaudesta (suom. Kyllikki Nurminen, 1949) - films: 1964, De l'amour, dir. by Jean Aurel, starring Anna Karina, Elsa Martinelli, Michel Piccoli, Jean Sorel; 1998, A los que aman, dir. by Isabel Coixet, screenplay by Isabel Coixet & Joan Potau, starring Olalla Moreno, Julio Núñez, Patxi Freytez
• RACINE ET SHAKESPEARE, 1823-1825 (2 vols.) - Racine and Shakespeare (tr. by Guy Daniels)
• LA VIE DE ROSSINI, 1823 - The Memoirs of Rossini (tr. 1824) / Life Of Rossini (trans. Richard N. Coe, 1970)
• D'UN NOUVEAU COMPLOT CONTRE LES INDUSTRIELS, 1825
• ARMANCE; OU, QUELQUES SCÈNES D'UN SALON DE PARIS EN 1827, 1827 - Armance (trans. by C. K. Scott Moncrieff)
• PROMENADES DANS ROME, 1829 - A Roman Journal (ed. by Haakon Chevalier, 1959) - film: 1978, Interno di un convento, dir. by Walerian Borowczyk, starring Ligia Branice, Howard Ross, Marina Pierro, Gabriella Giacobbe
• LE ROUGE ET LE NOIR: CHRONIQUE DU XIX SIÈCLE, 1830 - Red and Black: a Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century (tr. by E. P. Robins) / Scarlet and Black (tr. Margaret R. B. Shaw; C.K. Scott Moncrieff) / Stendhal’s The Red and the Black (ed. by W. Somerset Maugham, tr. by Joan Charles) / The Red and the Black (tr. by Horace B. Samuel; C.K. Scott Moncrieff; Robert M. Adams; Lloyd C. Parks; Roger Gard; Lowell Bair; Charles Tergie; Catherine Slater; Burton Raffel) - Punaista ja mustaa: kronikka 1830-luvulta (suom. Joel Lehtonen, 1929-30) / Punainen ja musta: kronikka XIX vuosisadalta (suom. J. A. Hollo, 1956) - films: 1920, Il Rosso e il nero, dir. by Mario Bonnard; 1928, Der Geheime Kurier, dir. by Gennaro Righelli; 1947, Il Corriere del re, dir. by Gennaro Righelli, starring Rossano Brazzi, Irasema Dilián, Valentina Cortese; 1954, dir. by Claude Autant-Lara, starring Gérard Philipe; 1976, Krasnoe i chyornoe , dir. by Sergei Gerasimov
• L'ABBESSE DE CASTRO, 1832
• VOYAGES DANS LE MIDI DE LA FRANCE - Travels in the South of France (tr. by Elisabeth Abbott)
• MÉMOIRES D'UN TOURIST, 1838 - Memoirs of a Tourist (tr. by Allan Seager)
• L'ABBESSE DE CASTRO, 1839 (includes Vittoria Accorambobi and Les Cenci)
• LA CHARTREUSE DE PARME, 1839 - La Chartreuse de Parme (tr. by E. P. Robins) / (The Charterhouse of Parma (tr. by Lady Mary Loyd; C. K. Scott Moncrieff; Margaret R. B. Shaw; Lowell Bair; Margaret Mauldon; Richard Howard) - Parman kartusiaaniluostari (suom. Aimo Sakari, 1971) - films 1947, dir. by Christian-Jaque, screenplay by Pierre Jarry ; 1954, dir. by Claude Autant-Lara
• CHRONIQUES ITALIENNES, 1839 (includes Vanina Vanini; La Duchesse de Palliano; San Fransesco à Ripa) - Three Italian Chronicles (translated by C.K. Scott-Moncrieff) - Italialaisia kronikoita (suom. Timo Tuura ja Annikki Suni) Italialaisia kertomuksia - films: 1922, Vanina oder Die Galgenhochzeit , dir. by Arthur von Gerlach, starring Asta Nielsen, Paul Wegener, Paul Hartmann; 1961, Vanina Vanini, dir. by Roberto Rossellini, starring Sandra Milo
• NOUVELLES INÉDITES, 1855
• LUCIEN LEUWEN, 1855 (in Nouvelles inédites) - Lucien Leuwen (tr. 1951)
• VIE DE NAPOLÉON, 1876 (in Oeuvres complètes) - A Life of Napoleon (tr. 1956)
• JOURNAL, 1888
• LAMIEL, 1889 (ed. by Casimir Stryienski) - Lamiel (trans. by T. W. Earp) / Lamiel: Or, The Ways of the Heart (tr. by Jacques Le Clercq) - film 1967, dir. by Jean Aurel, starring Anna Karina
• VIE DE HENRY BRULARD, 1890 (rev. ed. by Henry Debraye, 2 vols.) - The Life of Henry Brulard (tr. by Catherine Alison Phillips; Jean Stewart and B.C.J.G. Knight; John Sturrock)
• SOUVENIRS D'ÉGOTISME, 1892 - Memoirs of an Egoist (tr. by T. W. Earp; Hannah and Matthew Josephson; David Ellis)
• LE PHILTRE, 1892
• LUCIEN LEUWEN, 1894 - Lucien Leuwen: The Green Huntsman (tr. by Louise Varese)
• JOURNAL D'ITALIE, 1911
• ŒUVRES COMPLÈTES, 1912-48
• JOURNAL, 1923-34 (5 vols., ed. by Henry Debraye and Louis Royer) - Private Diaries (selection, ed. by Robert Sage, 1955)
• CORRESPONDANCE, 1933-35
• ŒUVRES, 1952-68 (6 vols., ed. by Henri Martineau)
• EN MARGE DES MANUSCRIPTS DE STENDHAL, 1955 (ed. by Victor de Litto)
• FEUILLETS INÉDITS, 1957 (ed. by Marcel A. Ruff)
• Selected Journalism from the English Reviews, 1959 (ed. by Geoffrey Strickland)
• Feder; or, The Moneyed Husband, 1960
• ŒUVRES COMPLÈTES, 1961-1962 (18 vols., ed. by Victor de Litto and Ernest Abravanel)
• CORRESPONDANCE, 1962-68 ( 3 vols., ed. by Henri Martineau and Victor de Litto)
• Stendhal and the Arts, 1973 (ed. by David Wakefield)
• VOYAGES EN ITALIE, 1973 (ed. by Victor de Litto)
• To the Happy Few: Selected Letters of Stendhal, 1979 (translated by Norman Cameron)
• OEUVRES INTIMES, 1981-82 (2 vols., ed. by Victor de Litto)
• The Stendhal Bicentennial Papers, 1987 (ed. by Avriel H. Goldberger)


Carson McCullers (1917-1967 - original name Lula Carson Smith

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ATLA pg. 111 - "I read little novels by Carson Mac Cullers. I like them though they are a little too womanly, too poetical and quivering and full of secret meaning."

ATLA pg. 311 - "I had a lunch with Ellen Wright Sunday, and I heard Carson MCcullers had to be given a strait jacket for trying to kill herself. She got paralysed chiefly because of brandy (her husband and herself drank three bottles each day and then wine, cocktails, scotch--all the regular drinks), but then she was made half-mad by the adaption of her last novel into a play. She needed money badly, and she thought the adaption was awful--her friends truied purposely to make the play a failure--she had a stroke, was takent to the hospital, then to New York, with half of herself crushed and dead--it seems she'll stay so until she dies, which is awful."

American author who examined the psychology of lonely, isolated people. McCullers published only eight books. Her best known novels are THE HEART IS A LONELY HUNTER 1940), which she wrote at the age of twenty-two, and REFLECTIONS IN A GOLDEN EYE (1942), set in a military base. Both of the books have been filmed. Although McCullers depicted homosexual characters and she had female lovers, she dealt with the theme of homosexuality in a wider context of alienation and dislocation.

Lula Carson Smith (Carson McCullers) was born in Columbus, Georgia, the daughter of a well-to-do watchmaker and jeweler of French Huguenot extraction. From the age of five McCullers took piano lessons and at the age of 17 she moved to New York to study piano at Juilliard School of Music. However, she never attended the school - she managed to lose the money set aside for her tuition. McCullers worked in menial and studied creative writing at Columbia and New York universities. In 1936 she published in Story magazine an autobiographical piece, 'Wunderkind', which depicted a musical prodigy's failure and adolescent insecurity.

In 1937 she married Reeves McCullers, a failed author. They moved to North Caroline, living there for two years. During this time she wrote The Heart is a Lonely Hunter, a novel in the Southern Gothic tradition. The title, suggested by McCullers's editor, was taken from Fiona MacLeod's poem 'The Lonely Hunter'. Set in the 1930s in a small mill town, similar to Charlotte of the 1930s, the story tells about an adolescent girl with a passion to study music. Other major characters include an unsuccessful socialist agitator, a black physician struggling to maintain his personal dignity, a widower who owns a café, and John Singer, the deaf-mute protagonist, who is confidante of people who talk to him about loneliness and misery. When Singer's Greek mute friend goes insane, Singer is left alone. He takes a room with the Kelly family, where he is visited by the town's misfits. After discovering that his mute friend has died, Singer shoots himself - there is no one left to communicate with him.

The Heart is a Lonely Hunter was interpreted as an anti-fascist book when it came out. In 1968 it was filmed with Alan Arkin in the lead role. Reflections in a Golden Eye was directed by John Huston (1967), starring Marlon Brando and Elizabeth Taylor. "I first met Carson McCullers during the war when I was visiting Paulette Goddard and Burgess Meredith in upstate New York," said Huston in An Open Book (1980). "Carson lived nearby, and one day when Buzz and I were out for a walk she hailed us from her doorway. She was then in her early twenties, and had already suffered the first of series of strokes that made her an invalid before she was thirty. I remember her as a fragile thing with great shining eyes, and a tremor in her hand as she placed it in mine. It wasn't palsy, rather a quiver of animal timidity. But there was nothing timid or frail about the manner in which Carson McCullers faced life. And as her affections multiplied, she only grew stronger."

In 1945 McCullers remarried Reeves. Three years later McCullers became so depressed she attempted suicide. Reeves killed himself in a Paris hotel in 1953 with an overdose of sleeping pills. Carson McCullers suffered throughout her life from several illnesses - she had contracted rheumatic fever at the age of fifteen and a series of strokes left her a virtual invalid in her early 30's. She died in New York on September 29, 1967, after a stroke and a resultant brain hemorrhage. Although McCullers's oeuvre is often described as "Southern Gothic," she produced her famous works after leaving the South. Her eccentric characters suffer from loneliness that is interpreted with deep empathy. In a discussion with the Irish critic and writer Terence De Vere White she confessed: "Writing, for me, is a search for God."

Selected works:

• THE HEART IS A LONELY HUNTER, 1940 -Yksinäinen sydän (suom. O.O. Aaltonen) - film 1968, dir. by Robert Ellis Miller, starring Alan Arkin, Sondra Locke, Laurinda Barrett
• REFLECTIONS IN A GOLDEN EYE, 1941 - Heijastuksia kultaisessa silmässä (suom. Kalevi Lappalainen) - film 1967, dir. by John Huston, starring Marlon Brando, Elizabeth Taylor, Julie Harris and Brian Keith
• THE MEMBER OF THE WEDDING, 1946 - adapted into stage in 1950, won the New York drama Critics Circle Award and two Donaldson Awards - film 1952, dir. by Fred Zinnemann, starring Julie Harris, Ethel Waters, Brandon de Wilde
• THE BALLAD OF THE SAD CAFÉ, 1951 (dramatized by Edward Albee in 1963) - Surullisen kahvilan balladi (suom. Martti Qvist) - film 1990, dir. by Simon Callow, starring Vanessa Redgrave, Keith Carradine, Rod Steiger
• THE NOVELS AND STORIES, 1951
• THE SQUARE ROOT OF WONDERFUL, 1958
• CLOCK WITHOUT HANDS, 1961 - Kello käy tyhjää (suom. Kirsti Jaantila)
• SWEET AS A PICKLE, CLEAN AS A PIG, 1964
• THE MORTGAGED HEART, 1971 (ed. by Margarita Gachet Smith)
• ILLUMINATION AND NIGHT GLARE, 1999 (ed. by Carlos L. Dews)



Truman Capote 1924-1984 - original name Truman Streckfus Persons

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DITHOT note: I didn't write down the page numbers where Capote is mentioned. :banghead: I'll try to go back and find them and add in the quotes.

American novelist, short story writer, and playwright. Capote gained international fame with his "nonfiction novel" IN COLD BLOOD (1966), an account of a real life crime in which an entire family was murdered by two sociopaths. The Louisiana-Mississippi-Alabama area provided the setting for much of Capote's fiction.

Truman Capote was born in New Orleans, as the son of a salesman and a 16-year-old beauty queen, Lillie Mae Faulk. His father, Archulus "Arch" Persons, worked as a clerk for a steamboat company. Persons never stuck at any job for long, and was always leaving home in search for new opportunities. The unhappy marriage gradually disintegrated. When Capote was four, his parents eventually divorced. The young Truman was brought up in Monroeville, Alabama. He lived some years with his relatives, one of whom became the model for the loving, elderly spinster of the author's novels, stories, and plays. Capote's mother, Lillie Mae, wrote letters and telephoned to her son, often crying that she had no money and no husband.

In his childhood Capote made friends with Harper Lee, who portrayed him as Dill in her world famous novel To Kill a Mockingbird. "Dill was a curiosity. He wore blue linen shorts that buttoned to his shirt, his hair was snow white and stuck to his head like duckfluff; he was a year my senior but I towered over him. As he told us the old tale his blue eyes would lighten and darken; his laugh was sudden and happy; he habitually pulled at a cowlick in the center of his forehead."

After Capote's mother married again, this time a well-to-do businessman, Capote moved to New York, and adopted his stepfather's surname. He attended the Trinity School and St. John's Academy in New York, and the public schools of Greenwich, Connecticut. At the age of seventeen, Capote ended his formal schooling. He found work at the New Yorker, where he attracted attention with his eccentric style of dress. "... I recall him sweeping through the corridors of the magazine in a black opera cape, his long golden hair falling to his shoulders: an apparition that put one in mind of Oscar Wilde in Nevada, in his velvets and lilies." (Brendan Gill in Here at The New Yorker, 1975)

Capote's early stories were published in quality magazines and in 1946 he won the O.Henry award. His first novel, OTHER VOICES, OTHER ROOMS (1948), depicted a boy, Joel Knox, growing up in the Deep South. Joel is "too pretty, too delicate and fair skinned". He seeks his father but falls into a relationship with a decadent transvestite. The book gained a wide success and created controversy because of its treatment of homosexuality. During this time Capote had already established his fame among the cultural circles as the thin voiced, promising young writer, who could brighten up parties with his sharp and clever remarks.

The next year Capote went to Europe, where he wrote fiction and non-fiction. Among his major works was a profile of Marlon Brando. Capote's travels accompanying a tour of Porgy and Bess in the Soviet Union produced THE MUSES ARE HEARD. These European years marked the beginning of Capote's work for the theatre and films.

Increasing preoccupation with journalism formed the basis for the bestseller In Cold Blood, a pioneering work of documentary novel or "nonfiction novel". The work started from an article in The New York Times. It dealt with the murder of a wealthy family in Holcomb, Kansas. Sponsored by the magazine, Capote and Harper Lee interviewed local people to recreate the lives of both the murderers and their victims. During the process he became emotionally attached to both killers. However, this did not prevent him from telling the story with utmost objectivity.

The research work and writing took six years to finish. Capote used neither a tape recorder nor note pad, but emptied his interviews and impressions in notebooks at the end of the day. He also recorded the last days of the death-obsessed criminals. Richard Brooks' screen adaptation of the book, with its black-and-white photography, avoided all sensationalism. The trial scene was re-enacted at the Finney County Court House in the Garden City, where the actual trial had taken place. Brooks also used the real jury who had convicted Perry Smith and Dick Hicock.

In interviews, Capote's negative anecdotes about the people he knew distanced him from his friends. "I had a big discussion with Saul Bellow about Richard Wright," Capote said in 1974. "I said, Richard Wright was a good friend of mine and do you know what Saul Bellow said? He said, "Huh! Well, Wright just became a victim of these heavyweight intellectuals. I used to see him carting around books on Wittgenstein. He was convinced he was an intellectual." I thought that was very sad and pathetic." Truman Capote died in Los Angeles, California, on August 26, 1984, of liver disease complicated by phlebitis and multiple drug intoxication.

Selected works:

• OTHER VOICES, OTHER ROOMS, 1948
• A TREE OF NIGHT AND OTHER STORIES, 1949
• LOCAL COLOR, 1950
• THE GRASS HARP, 1951 - Ruohojen harppu (suom. Eila Pennanen) - film 1996, dir. by Charles Matthau, starring Piper Laurie, Sissy Spacek, Walter Matthau, Edward Furlong, Jack Lemmon, Nell Carter
• THE GRASS HARP, 1952 (play)
• BEAT THE DEVIL, 1954 (screenplay, with John Huston) - film dir. by J.H., starring Humphrey Bogart, Jennifer Jones, Gina Lollobrigida, Peter Lorre, Robert Morley
• THE HOUSE OF FLOWERS, 1954 (play, with Harold Arlen)
• THE MUSES HAVE HEARD, 1956
• BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY'S, 1958 - Aamiainen Tiffanylla (suom. Inkeri Hämäläinen ja Kristiina Kivivuori) - film 1961, dir. by Blake Edwards, starring Audrey Hepburn, George Peppard, Patricia Neal, Buddy Ebsen
• THE INNOCENTS, 1961 (screenplay, with William Archibald and John Mortimer) - film dir. by Jack Clayton, starring Deborah Kerr, Michael Redgrave, Peter Wyngarde, Megs Jenkis
• OBSERVATIONS, 1959 (with R. Avedon)
• SELECTED WRITINGS, 1963
• IN COLD BLOOD, 1966 - Kylmäverisesti (suom. Tauno Tainio) - film 1967, written and directed by Richard Brooks, starring Robert Blake, Scott Wilson, John Forsythe, Paul Stewart; television film 1996
• A CHRISTMAS MEMORY, 1966
• A CHRISTMAS MEMORY, 1966 (television play)
• THE THANKSGIVING VISITOR, 1967
• AMONG THE PATHS TO EDEN, 1967 (television play)
• LAURA, 1968 (television play)
• HOUSE OF FLOWERS, 1968
• THE THANKSGIVING VISITOR, 1968 (television play)
• TRILOGY, 1969 (screenplay, with Eleanor Perry)
• EXPERIMENT IN MULTIMEDIA, 1969 (with E. and F. Perry)
• BEHIND PRISON WALLS, 1972 (television play)
• THE GLASS HOUSE, 1972 (television play, with Tracy Keenan Wynn and Wyatt Cooper)
• THE DOGS BARK, 1973
• CRIMEWATCH, 1973 (television play)
• THEN IT ALL CAME DOWN, 1976
• MUSIC FOR CHAMELEONS, 1980
• ONE CHRISTMAS, 1982
• CONVERSATIONS WITH CAPOTE, 1985
• ANSWERED PRAYERS, 1986 (unfinished)
• A CAPOTE READER, 1987
• MARILYN MONROE: PHOTOGRAPHS 1945-1962, 1994
• SUMMER'S CROSSING, 2005 - Kesän taittuessa (suom. Kaijamari Sivill)
• PORTRAITS AND OBSERVATIONS: THE ESSAYS OF TRUMAN CAPOTE, 2007



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Wed Sep 29, 2010 11:21 pm 
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I don’t know about Stendahl who lived in a much earlier time, but the other three, Gide, McCullers and Capote sure seemed to live interesting lives that would make great books. I don’t think you could classify any of them as average.

Carson McCullers certainly had a hard life. I can’t believe that she is an American author and Simone as a French woman knew more about her than Algren. Then again, maybe he knew her since we still have not seen his side of the correspondence.

Capote, I remember as an eccentric on late night talk shows in his later years. Didn’t they have a film called Capote with Phillip Seymour Hoffman playing the part recently?

I am embarrassed to say that the titles of many of their writings ring a bell but other than Capote I never heard of the authors. I don’t know if the fame of the titles was from the book or later films.



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Thu Sep 30, 2010 7:51 pm 
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Yes, Gemini, There was a recent movie on Capote. I think Hoffman got an Academy Award for his part. As I remember he was portraded ( is this a word?? ) as being pretty scewy - Capote, that is.

So much reading about all these people. Whew. I'm feeling I've almost lost the words in my mind from ATLA! :giddy:

Lady Jill



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Thu Sep 30, 2010 8:18 pm 
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Lady Jill wrote:
Yes, Gemini, There was a recent movie on Capote. I think Hoffman got an Academy Award for his part. As I remember he was portraded ( is this a word?? ) as being pretty scewy - Capote, that is.

So much reading about all these people. Whew. I'm feeling I've almost lost the words in my mind from ATLA! :giddy:

Lady Jill


Yes, I think he was screwy! I thing Philip Seymore Hoffman is a great actor and he has the light hair to pull off Capote's looks.

Off topic but I read in the news today of a lady who didn’t want her child reading Catcher in the Rye for a book report so they let the child read Huck Finn instead. Anyhow the article went on that the lady was again bringing up censorship trying to ban Catcher in the Rye. The article author thought it had been tried many times unsuccessfully. She was against censorship because she recalled reading In cold blood by Copote and though it was horrifying she said it taught her what real writing was all about because it was so good.



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Thu Sep 30, 2010 8:44 pm 
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gemini, that sadly seems to be an issue revisited every few years. :rolleyes:

Hoffman did win the Oscar for his portrayal of Capote. It was amazing!



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Thu Sep 30, 2010 10:42 pm 
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gemini wrote:
Off topic but I read in the news today of a lady who didn’t want her child reading Catcher in the Rye for a book report so they let the child read Huck Finn instead. Anyhow the article went on that the lady was again bringing up censorship trying to ban Catcher in the Rye. The article author thought it had been tried many times unsuccessfully. She was against censorship because she recalled reading In cold blood by Copote and though it was horrifying she said it taught her what real writing was all about because it was so good.


How strange... she didn't want her child to read Catcher in the Rye so they let the child read Huck Finn? The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been on the list of "banned" or "challenged" books for years because of crude language and stereotyping.

and, I agree, DITHOT, Hoffman was amazing as Capote.

btw: celebrate Banned Books Week (Sept. 25-Oct. 2) by reading a banned book!



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Fri Oct 01, 2010 12:03 am 
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bluebird wrote:
gemini wrote:
Off topic but I read in the news today of a lady who didn’t want her child reading Catcher in the Rye for a book report so they let the child read Huck Finn instead. Anyhow the article went on that the lady was again bringing up censorship trying to ban Catcher in the Rye. The article author thought it had been tried many times unsuccessfully. She was against censorship because she recalled reading In cold blood by Copote and though it was horrifying she said it taught her what real writing was all about because it was so good.


How strange... she didn't want her child to read Catcher in the Rye so they let the child read Huck Finn? The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been on the list of "banned" or "challenged" books for years because of crude language and stereotyping.

and, I agree, DITHOT, Hoffman was amazing as Capote.

btw: celebrate Banned Books Week (Sept. 25-Oct. 2) by reading a banned book!

That was brought up in the article. I forget the exact number but Huck Finn was down the list only a few numbers from Catcher in the Rye due to its racial language.



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 Post subject: Re: ATLA Tidbit #16 ~ More Authors
PostPosted: Thu Oct 21, 2010 12:25 am 
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This has been haunting me since I read this tidbit last night. I knew that I had read something about Carson McCullers somewhere else recently, and it wasn't in ATLA. (To be honest, I don't remember reading about her in ATLA. :blush: ) But I had a feeling that it related somehow to ATLA. So I just now found it. It was Cau (one of the family), and something I chose to leave out of my tidbit on him. This is from Cau's obituary in The Independent (James Kirkup, 1993):

Jean Cau had a puritan streak in his hot southern blood, and I noticed that while Sartre drank whisky at the Flore, Cau rather ostentatiously sipped Evian. He describes being shocked by Carson MacCullers when he interviews her early in the morning and her hands are shaking so much she can hardly hold her coffee-cup. She explains that she is an alcoholic, and cannot function properly until she has a few shots of bourbon. He forgives her because she wrote The Heart is a Lonely Hunter - something Cau always felt himself to be, despite his success with women.



DITHOT, thanks for the extra info on Carson since I was wondering about her. I had heard of The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (the movie) but knew nothing about the author.



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